The so-called “onion tests” are considered to be the standard in environmental monitoring, and are used as the bio-indicator for evaluating environmental pollution. This is deemed a very efficient scientific procedure for water quality research.
Allium assay is a test used for establishing genotoxicity of earth ecosystems – water, ground, air, and other media. Frequency of chromosomal aberrations is established in root tip cells of the test plant roots – common onion (Allium cepa L.) where evidence of potential genotoxic substances is provided. The test takes into account comprehensive influence and mutual action between genotoxic substances and genetic material (chromatin, chromosomes).
Onion tests (Allium tests) give unyielding evidence of the quality of water and unlike chemical tests show the comprehensive pollution effects, not only the presence of substances sought by methods employed by analytical chemistry.
What are Chromosomes?
Chromosomes are the structures that hold genes. Genes are the individual instructions that tell our bodies how to develop and function; they govern physical and medical characteristics, such as hair color, blood type and susceptibility to disease.
Changes that affect the structure of chromosomes can cause problems with growth, development, and function of the body’s systems. These changes can affect many genes along the chromosome and disrupt the proteins made from those genes.
i9 Tests results
While the onion test results are not only unambiguous, as far as water quality goes, they also clearly exhibit the effects of pollution, which isn’t the case with chemical tests. The water genotoxicity in the i9 informed water bottle was proven to be considerably reduced.
Different number chromosome damage in metaphase cells obtained from the meristeme roottype cells of onion (Allium. cepa L.): one damaged chromosome (A), four damaged chromosome (B), eight damaged chromosomes (C), whole chromosome garniture is damaged (D).
Examples of series of onions cultivated for 72 hour in different concentration MMS: 100 ppm (A), 10 ppm (C), 1 ppm (E), 0,1 ppm (F), 0,01 ppm (D) and 0,001 ppm (B).
Following the results of general toxicity and genotoxicity level between positive and negative control treated tap water (original i9 informed water bottle) has a lower genotoxicity level than ordinary tap water.
Treatment in accordance with original technology (original i9 informed water bottle) reduces the level of general toxicity as well as the level of genotoxicity (p = 0,0325 < 0,05 – Fisher’s Exsact Test). The quality of water is improved.